An Interactive Dynamic eLearning Framework for Visual and Verbal Learners

International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering
© 2017 by SSRG - IJCSE Journal
Volume 4 Issue 7
Year of Publication : 2017
Authors : Mahendra A Sethi, Santosh S Lomte

How to Cite?

Mahendra A Sethi, Santosh S Lomte, "An Interactive Dynamic eLearning Framework for Visual and Verbal Learners," SSRG International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering , vol. 4,  no. 7, pp. 3-13, 2017. Crossref,


 In this paper, an eLearning Framework to identify visual and verbal learners is proposed. The proposed framework identifies learning style using ILS Questionnaire based on Felder Silverman Learning Style Model. The learning strategies and learning assessment strategies of visual and verbal learners are identified using the two tests developed based on VARK model. The learner profile data is analyzed using K-Means algorithm to create learning style, learning strategy and assessment strategy clusters. The style specific learning objects are developed and delivered to learners using rule based method and FP Growth algorithm. This framework is useful for teachers to understand the learner and provide them personalized learning environment for improving the learning efficiency.


eLearning, Learning Style, Visual/Verbal Learners, Learning Strategies, KMeans, Association Rule Mining, Dynamic eLearning


[1] Richard M. Felder, and Linda K. Silverman, ―Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education, Engineering Education, Vol. 78, No. 7, 1988, pp. 674–681.
[2] Richard M. Felder Author‘s Preface - June 2002 ers/LS-1988.pdf
[3] Richard M. Felder ―Learning Styles and Strategies A fourpage handout that briefly explains the learning style preferences defined by the Felder-Silverman model. dir/styles.pdf
[4] Index of Learning Style (ILS) available online at page.html
[5] Felder, R.M., Solomon, B.A.,
[6] ILS Questionnaire, ILS Scoring Sheet, ILS Report form available online in .pdf format at
[7] Neil Fleming ―Teaching and Learning Styles - VARK Strategies‖, Revised and reprinted April 2012. ISBN Number: ISBN 978-0-473-07956-7
[8] Ahmed Al-Azawei and Atta Badii, STATE OF THE ART OF LEARNING STYLES-BASED ADAPTIVE EDUCATIONAL HYPERMEDIA SYSTEMS (LS-BAEHSS) International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 6, No 3, June 2014.
[9] Simon Casidy ―Learning Styles: An overview of theories, models and measures, Educational Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 4, August 2004. ISSN 0144-3410 (print) / ISSN 1469-046X (online) / 04/030419-26.
[10] Alharbi, A., Paul, D., Henskens, F. & Hannaford, M. (2011). An investigation into the learning styles and self-regulated learning strategies for Computer Science students. In G.Williams, P. Statham, N. Brown & B. Cleland (Eds.) Changing Demands, Changing Directions. Proceedings ascilite Hobart 2011. (pp.36-46). -full.pdf
[11] Silvia Rita Viola, Sabine Graf, Kinshuk, Tommaso Leo ―Analysis of Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles by a Data-driven Statistical Approach.
[12] Norasmah Othman, Mohd Hasril Amiruddin ―Different Perspectives of Learning Styles from VARK Model, International Conference on Learner Diversity 2010, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 7(C) (2010) 652– 660, 1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
[13] Burcu Devrim Ictenbas, Hande Eryilmaz ―Determining Learning Styles of Engineering Students to Improve the Design of a Service Course, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 28 (2011) 342 – 346, 1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
[14] Tulsi, P. K., and M. P. Poonia. "Learning styles and achievement of engineering students." In Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 2016 IEEE, pp. 192-196. IEEE, 2016.
[15] Nongkhai, L. N., & Kaewkiriya, T. (2015, October). Framework for e-Leaming recommendation based on index of learning styles model. In Information Technology and Electrical Engineering (ICITEE), 2015 7th International Conference on (pp. 587-592). IEEE.
[16] Hassan, Mohammed, and Mohamed Hamada. "Learning system and analysis of learning style for African and Asian students." In Teaching, Assessment, and Learning for Engineering (TALE), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 83-87. IEEE, 2015.
[17] Chou, Te-Lien, and Sufen Chen. "The effects of progress bars on diverse learning styles in web-based learning." In Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on, pp. 493-494. IEEE, 2015.
[18] Al-Azawei, Ahmed, and Karsten Lundqvist. "The impacts of learning styles, learning patterns and demographic factors on learners' performance in a blended learning environment." In Information Society (i-Society), 2014 International Conference on, pp. 105-111. IEEE, 2014.
[19] Schreitter, Stephanie, and Brigitte Krenn. "Exploring interand intra-speaker variability in multi-modal task descriptions." In Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2014 RO-MAN: The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 43-48. IEEE, 2014.
[20] Fu, Gang-shan, and Yun-fu Li. "Group Differences: Elearning Anxiety and Sense of Spatial Orientation--Groups Divided by Felder-Silverman Learning Style." In Educational Innovation through Technology (EITT), 2014 International Conference of, pp. 176-183. IEEE, 2014.
[21] Zhu, Haiping, Xinhui Zhang, Xinhong Wang, Yan Chen, and Bin Zeng. "A case study of learning action and emotion from a perspective of learning analytics." In Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), 2014 IEEE 17th International Conference on, pp. 420-424. IEEE, 2014.
[22] Al-Wabil, Areej, Hebah ElGibreen, Remya P. George, and Buthainah Al-Dosary. "Exploring the validity of learning styles as personalization parameters in eLearning environments: An eyetracking study." In Computer Technology and Development (ICCTD), 2010 2nd International Conference on, pp. 174-178. IEEE, 2010.
[23] Chang, Wen-Hsuan, Jie-Chi Yang, and Yu-Chieh Wu. "A keyword-based video summarization learning platform with multimodal surrogates." In Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2011 11th IEEE International Conference on, pp. 37-41. IEEE, 2011.
[24] Allert, James. "Learning style and factors contributing to success in an introductory computer science course." In Advanced Learning Technologies, 2004. Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on, pp. 385-389. IEEE, 2004.
[25] Alzain, Alzain Meftah, Gren Ireson, Steve Clark, and Ali Jwaid. "Learning style instruments and impact of content: A qualitative study." In Sustainable Technologies (WCST), 2016 World Congress on, pp. 109-114. IEEE, 2016.
[26] Chaturvedi, Abhinav, and M. T. U. Haider. "Relationship between inductive reasoning and learning style to enhance adaptivity in learning system." In Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2015.
[27] Fitkov-Norris, Elena, and Ara Yeghiazarian. "Measuring the relationship between study habits and preferred learning style in higher educations." In Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2014 IEEE, pp. 1-4. IEEE.
[28] Alawawdeh, Alaeddin MH, Ali Shariq Imran, and Stewart James Kowalski. "Norwegian information security lectures as a case study for hyper interactive presenter." In Computer Applications and Information Systems (WCCAIS), 2014 World Congress on, pp. 1-5. IEEE, 2014.
[29] Chang, Chih-Kai, Tsung-Yen Chuang, and Wen-Lin Kuo. "Relationships between engagement and learning style for using VPL on game design." In Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning (DIGITEL), 2012 IEEE Fourth International Conference on, pp. 153-155. IEEE, 2012.
[30] Dekson, D. E., and E. S. M. Suresh. "Learner centered Adaptive and Intelligent E-Portfolio Architecture for Learning (AIEPAL)." In Advanced Computing (ICoAC), 2011 Third International Conference on, pp. 111-116. IEEE, 2011.
[31] Liyanage, M. P. P., KS, L. G., & Hirakawa, M. (2016). Detecting Learning Styles in Learning Management Systems Using Data Mining. Journal of Information Processing, 24(4), 740-749.
[32] Y. Helmy., 2A. Abdo., 3R. Abdallah (2016) A Proposed Framework for Learning Style Prediction in Higher Education Environments International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 140-143
[33] Abdullah, Manal, Wafaa H. Daffa, Reem M. Bashmail, Mona Alzahrani, and Malak Sadik. "The Impact of Learning Styles on Learner's Performance in E-Learning Environment." International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 6, no. 9 (2015): 24-31.
[34] Fatahi, S., Moradi, H., & Farmad, E. (2015). Behavioral Feature Extraction to Determine Learning Styles in e- Learning Environments. International Association for Development of the Information Society.
[35] Koppisetty, R. Application of Data Mining in Adaptive and Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Review. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 6 (3), 2015, 2910-2917.
[36] Petchboonmee, Phanthipha, Duangkamol Phonak, and Monchai Tiantong. "A comparative data mining technique for david kolb's experiential learning style classification." International Journal of Information and Education Technology5, no. 9 (2015): 672.
[37] Liyanage, M. P. P., Gunawardena, K. L., & Hirakawa, M. (2014). Using Learning Styles to Enhance Learning Management Systems. ICTer, 7(2).
[38] Yang, J., Huang, Z. X., Gao, Y. X., & Liu, H. T. (2014). Dynamic learning style prediction method based on a pattern recognition technique. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 7(2), 165-177.
[39] Mirabedini, S. (2013). A new approach for clustering of students based on learning style. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4(5), 1277-1286.
[40] Velusamy, B., Anouneia, S. M., & Abraham, G. (2013). Reinforcement Learning Approach for Adaptive E-learning Systems using Learning Styles. Information Technology Journal, 12(12), 2306-2314.
[41] Varghese, B. M., Unnikrishnan, A., Sciencist, G., Kochi, N. P. O. L., & Kochi, C. U. S. A. T. (2010). Clustering student data to characterize performance patterns. Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl, 138-140.
[42] Joshi, M., Vaidya, R., & Lingras, P. (2011). Automatic determination of learning styles. In Proc. 2nd international Conference on Education and Management Technology, IACSIT Press, Singapore (Vol. 13).
[43] Li, Y., & Zhao, S. (2010, April). An association rule mining approach for intelligent tutoring system. In Computer Engineering and Technology (ICCET), 2010 2nd International Conference on (Vol. 6, pp. V6-460). IEEE.
[44] Ruhi Dubey, Rajni Ranjan Singh Makwana "Comparative Analysis of Computer Assisted Valuation of Descriptive Answers using WEKA with different classification algorithms", SSRG International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (SSRG - IJCSE), V4 (6), 5-10 June 2017.ISSN:2348–8387. Published by: Seventh Sense Research Group.
[45] Ashok babu, Balaji kadiravan "ACO in e-Learning: Headed for an Adaptive Knowledge Conduit Method", SSRG International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (SSRG - IJCSE), V3 (1), 1-4 January 2016. ISSN: 2348 – 8387. Published by: Seventh Sense Research Group.